The Chinese Cultural Revolution
The Chinese Communist Party was, by any measure, the most authoritarian in history.
In the decades since the Cultural Revolution, it has sought to control everything from education to media to the way we think about and understand the world around us.
But its achievements were not always the ones it claimed, as the political scientist Richard Reeves recently detailed in a book called The Chinese Political Prisoner: The Cultural Revolution in China and its Legacy.
The Chinese government has a long record of corruption, inefficiency, and abuse of power, Reeves and colleagues wrote.
In fact, the regime has often been accused of committing even more abuses than it’s been accused.
But Reeves argues that the Chinese government’s crackdowns on the country’s intellectual elite over the past few decades have largely gone unreported.
“It’s a case of the Chinese authorities are trying to maintain a facade of legitimacy,” he said.
“But what you’re really seeing is an accumulation of evidence that the authorities have been using against them, and that they’re not.”
Reeves, a political scientist at Harvard University who has studied the rise and fall of the Communist Party, is among a growing number of scholars who are beginning to look into the role that the regime played in fostering a culture of “cult-like” loyalty and repression.
That loyalty and control, Reeves argues, have allowed the Chinese to retain power over the people and their institutions, while keeping the country isolated from the outside world.
In many ways, the Chinese are still in charge in China, but the government has been replaced by a new, less authoritarian version of the Party that has been accused repeatedly of abusing power and stifling dissent.
The Cultural Liberation The Cultural Revolutionary period was one of the most important in Chinese history.
It began in 1949 with the launch of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and began in earnest after Mao Zedong’s death in 1976.
By the early 1960s, China was a modern nation with a rich intellectual, cultural, and technological heritage.
But that cultural history is in danger.
As Reeves and others have pointed out, many of the things that were considered the countrys greatest achievements in the early years of the PRC—such as building roads, railways, and dams—were abandoned or destroyed during Mao’s rule.
As the PRCs economy began to decline in the 1980s, the country lost its international stature and its leadership.
The party leadership was deeply divided and had to be re-formed to overcome internal divisions and external pressures.
The new leadership also had to contend with the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
But as Reeves and other scholars have noted, the party’s leadership had little choice but to resort to violence to maintain power.
The PRCs leadership also began to lose control over its own domestic policy, particularly in the 1990s and 2000s, as China’s economy began falling apart and economic growth slowed to a crawl.
By 2009, the Party had lost control over more than half of the country and was in serious financial trouble.
In 2011, the new leadership came to power and vowed to clean up the country.
However, it was unable to achieve any of its ambitious social, economic, and environmental policies.
China’s Communist Party began to suffer from a range of problems, including a lack of leadership and control over the economy, corruption, and a weak state.
The countrys economic downturn also led to a massive drop in the birthrate.
In response, the government was forced to institute drastic economic measures, including massive layoffs and drastic restrictions on private property.
The government’s policies, however, failed to produce economic growth, which in turn caused more and more discontent among the Chinese population.
Many people believed that the country was headed for civil war, Reeves said.
Meanwhile, the political and social elite was becoming increasingly hostile toward the government.
They believed that it was simply a corrupt and inept government, he said, and began to form a “cult of loyalty” to the party and its leaders.
As this loyalty and powerlessness was becoming entrenched, the leadership began to seek ways to suppress dissent and undermine the country, as Reeves explained in an interview with National Review.
“They began to go to great lengths to marginalize, isolate, and isolate those people who were not loyal to them,” he explained.
“You had a number of people who would not come out of their rooms, and they would call the police and make demands.
People would be told to go into hiding.
They were arrested.”
The Cultural Resistance The Cultural Redemptive War began in 1992.
In a bid to preserve its hold on power, the ruling Communist Party decided to launch an all-out attack on those who were resisting the Party.
The first step in the attack was the Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989.
After more than six months of brutal suppression and death marches, the Communist leadership launched an all out campaign of repression to silence those who opposed the Party’s authoritarian policies.
This was known as the Cultural Redemption.
This crackdown was so brutal that it killed more than